Haloed Bane

Lesson Seven

Syntax

Horgothic is mostly an SVO language, though it shifts to SOV order in some dependent clauses. Elements other than the subject may be fronted to highlight or emphasize them (also, to make Yes/No questions). Most sentences will typically be arranged as follows (note that adjectives and other descriptive words are known as local descriptors and are attached to one of the elements below):

Syntactic slot 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Element subject verb manner adverbial direct object or predicate adjective indirect object place adverbial time adverbial global descriptor

By "verb" a multi-element phrase may be denoted. In most sentences, the order of all possible elements in a verb phrase is as follows:

jau conditional tense or aspect marker modal doch/vloch limiter vin/piak modifier verb proper

Incudean grammarians classify clauses into three categories: earthly (likuilkambo), fiery (tiarkambo), and ethereal (manukambo). They can be roughly described as independent, subordinate and relative clauses respectively. Below, a number of syntactically noteworthy sentences of the Klontein passage are presented, with the clauses surrounded by square brackets [for earthly clauses], angle brackets <fiery>, and parentheses (ethereal). It might be helpful to remember that the shapes of these three elements are the cube, the pyramid and the sphere respectively.

[Fedimans elbo rauloster me cholmarmirbinis morder paith nu fedimans elbo trend.]

elbo rauloster is a local descriptor attached to the subject fedimans, as morder is to cholmarmirbinis and elbo trend is to fedimans. fedimans elbo trend is itself a local descriptor of cholmarmirbinis, the object of the sentence. paith is a time adverbial. Single-word time adverbials may be placed anywhere in the sentence.

[Olfinis (tuk sujama cha puns mijem) kum inze oin luzenglar la dalionis nu finjaushiarri nagranter.]

The embedded ethereal clause here has the verb in final position, as is standard for both ethereal and fiery clauses. Ethereal clauses are always headed either by tuk (when the antecedent is the subject of the verb in the clause) or by has (when the antecedent is not the subject) inze and oin luzenglar la dalionis nu finjaushiarri nagranter are manner adverbials, with nu finjaushiarri nagranter being a local descriptor of dalionis, with la dalionis in turn being a local descriptor of luzenglar.

<Nas uth gatatum,> [jikia vloch dukim raulos adun.]

Nas is one of many words that introduce a fiery clause. The earthly clause here can be broken down as: subject + verb phrase (vloch dukim) + object + time adverbial.

[Jikia rum gatanglaiglar] [ha olfinis doch rum man,] [fenas raulos gurri doch ikusokatum cha jikia.]

ha and fenas often introduce secondary earthly clauses, which behave as usual (these headwords can be said to occupy slot 0). gurri doch ikusokatum as a verb phrase consists of a modal, limiter and verb proper.

[Azu fash nu klenu jum madesh:] [aul chath olfinis glai oith chocholmarmirbinatum tran mijem nekema nu violins.]

azu and aul (in its role as complementizer) also introduce earthly clauses.

=[Shemprisijil nu Banuibel, Gro.Kro. 40351.]

This is a sentence fragment, where something like Elu vas can be assumed to precede the phrase implicitly. An earthly clause of this type is simply termed fragmentary (meteden). The equal sign here represents the fact that the fragment is missing an element to its left.

[Main kral enans jum ashins nu vutatins] <chaul tan tru tulinirgal tran flainam piafon punam.>

The earthly clause in this sentence has a place adverbial (main kral enans) in first position. This fronting forces the verb proper (jum) to occupy the second slot (a tense or aspect marker would have taken the slot instead if there were one). The rest of the sentence follows the usual order. Without fronting, this clause would read ashins nu vutatins jum main kral enans. As for the fiery clause, note that the verb proper must always be in final position (although a one-word temporal can occupy that spot as adun does in jikia vloch dukim raulos adun). If there were any other elements in the verb phrase, they would precede the verb proper here. Verb and verb phrases in ethereal clauses behave in exactly the same manner, but no these clauses allow no fronting of any kind. Also, we see that in this clause the indirect object (tran flainam piafon, a purposive phrase) follows the place adverbial. The general rule that a place adverbial follows an indirect object is suspended when a movement verb like punam is involved.

[Tanchano vais orkus tran vutins,] [ha pashgema urrom shulvlochins bashter.]

vloch is here compounded to the main noun to denote that only the bad people were bothered. vloch bashulins would mean "the only bad people".

<Nas elu lesos jum,> [tanseitemir flauchatum tior Upakama,] [fenas prechauma vais jias tons] <tru tuk hagen shemachenglari nu fenimans raul ele maun pachima brusiam.>

tru tuk is one of several two-word combinations with tuk that head fiery clauses. In this case, hagen shemachenglari nu fenimans raul ele maun pachima is the subject, with shemachenglari, nu fenimans and raul ele maun pachima being local descriptors of the subject proper, which is hagen. The verb goes in final position as is the norm with fiery clauses.

[Tan nui felam,] =[otum fel,] [ha brian monkar prel Doles ara seitemir.]

When a subject is linked to two actions, the second action heads a separate clause, a fragmentary version of the clause type headed by the subject. Thus here otum fel is a fragmentary earthly clause with tan for its implicit subject.

[Tanath nui pegam] <ima tuk maun dian siomains ul acham glai.>

The fiery clause here shows the change in order within a multi-word verb phrase: the verb proper appears before any helping elements (in this case glai, a modal). Note also that ul (also chuch and kral) always precedes the verb phrase even though it is essentially a manner adverbial.

[Zindins vas harlam jia hem tanflinglar,] [fenas elu me]= [aul uns glongum vazekins nu violins.]

Incudean grammarians count three earthly clauses here, with the second one being a fragment whose implicit object is the third (complementary) clause. (A clause ending in me is always a fragment.)

<Nas tanglajorins seitemir tarmeihem nui,> [uns doch chadinom,] =[liovim mahish grushkema,] =[pashgem gashaul.]

The tense marker nui follows the verb proper tarmeihem, as is usual for a fiery clause. The subject uns has three verbs, two of which head fragmentary clauses.

[Nesheheirimans tormin jia harlam paith] [aul elu ara feloma la kina,] [fenas daun shuprisfavicheth u dogutunvinyi jum imaja ena vune shinajoster] [lokes elu me ul nyigas.]

Here is a breakdown of the entire sentence: [/subject+local descriptor/ + /aspect marker+verb proper/ + time adverbial] + [complementizer + subject + verb + /object+local descriptor/] + [conjunction + /local descriptor+subject+local descriptor/ + verb + complex time adverbial] + [conjunction + subject + verb + /local descriptor+object.]

next